The Age of Science: 1600 - 2100


This is the present age. It begins around 1600, in which year Kepler went to work for Tycho Brahe and was able to use his observational data to eventually deduce three laws of planetary motion, Gilbert wrote on magnetism, Bacon on scientific method, Galileo in 1609 turned his telescope to observe the satellites of Jupiter, and the church executed Bruno for heresies arising from his musings on the consequences of the Copernican system. Greater detail will be found in the pages on individual sciences. This age includes the development of the mechanics of Newton, and its midpoint 1850 sees the steam power of the industrial revolution, and the evolutionary revolution in biology of Darwin and Wallace.


Colour coding: red = mathematics, astronomy, physics orange = materials, chemistry, geology, engineering, architecture yellow = biology, medicine, exploration, anthropology, psychology green = visual art, printing blue = literature, poetry, music mauve = history, philosophy, metaphysics, theology grey = wars, politics, events (indented)


1600

1600: Kepler inherits the observational data of Tycho Brahe and uses them to formulate his three laws of planetary motion.

1600: Oyo empire in W. Africa begins to flourish.

1601 - 1665 Pierre de Fermat + number theorist.

1602 - 1618: Persia at war with Ottoman empire.

1602 - 1675 Gilles Roberval + + mathematician, founding member of the Academie Royale des Sciences, Paris 1666, made contributions to development of calculus Traité des indivisibles +, but not published until 1693.

1602 - 1676 Pietro Francesco Cavali, music composer.

1603 - 1674 Giacomo Carissimi, music composer.

1606: Willem Jansz is first European to sight Australia.

1606 - 1669 Rembrandt van Rijn + +, painter, The Night Watch + 1642, Self-portraits +.

1607: Virginia is first English colony in the Americas.

17th century typefaces: 1608 Materot

1616 - 1703 John Wallis +, Arithmetica Infinitorum 1656.

1618 - 1648: Thirty Years War

1619: Dutch empire established in East Indies.

1622 first graphite pencil made.

1623 - 1662 Blaise Pascal + + + +, mathematician and theologian Pensees +.

1623 - 1669 Antonio Cesti, musician.

1624: New Amsterdam (New York) founded by Dutch.

1625

1625 - 1712 Giovanni Cassini + +, astronomer.

1625 - 1682 Johann J. Becher +, mistaken 'fatty earth' (phlogiston) theory.

1626 - 1697 Francesco Redi +, showed maggots hatch from egg-laying flies 1668.

1627 - 1691 Robert Boyle + + + + + + + +, The Sceptical Chymist 1661.

1627 - 1703 John Ray + naturalist.

1628 Billingsly writing book

1629 - 1695 Christian Huygens + + +, Horologium Oscillatorium 1673, Treatise on Light 1690.

1630 - 1677 Isaac Barrow +. First Lucasian Professor of mathematics. Friend of John Ray and tutor of Isaac Newton.

1631 - 1700 John Dryden +, Absalom amd Achitophel political satire.

1632 - 1723 Antoni van Leeuwenhoek + microscopist.

1632 - 1687 Jean Baptiste Lully, musician.

1632 - 1704 John Locke + + + + + +, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, philosopher of empiricism and democracy.

1635 - 1703 Robert Hooke +, microscopist and architect.

c.1637 - 1707 Dietrich Buxterhude, musician, organist.

1638 - 1686 Niels Stensen aka Nicolaus Steno +, Prodromus 1669, recognised that fossil shells in rock strata must have been laid down on the seabed, and that lower levels without fossils must predate the existence of life.

1642: Abel Tasman lands on Tasmania and Tonga and sights New Zealand.

1642 - 1648: English Civil War.

1642 mezzotint invented by Ludwig von Siegen.

1642 - 1727 Isaac Newton + + + + + + + +, Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy + + 1687.

1644 (to 1911): Manchus conquer China and establish Qing dynasty.

1645 - 1704 Marc-Antoine Charpentier, musician.

1646 - 1716 Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz + + + + philosopher and mathematician, calculus.

1649 - 1708 John Blow, musician.

1650

1652 - 1674: Anglo-Dutch Wars.

Cape Town, S. Africa, founded by Dutch East India Company.

1653 - 1713 Archangelo Corelli, musician.

1654 - 1705 Jacob Bernoulli + mathematician.

1656 - 1742 Edmond Halley +, 1687 Persuaded Newton to publish the Principia, 1682 observed Halley's comet and later used Newtonian mechanics to predict its return in 1749.

1659 - 1695 Henry Purcell + + + + +, composer Dido and Aeneas.

1660: Foundation of the Royal Society by Wren, Hooke, Boyle and others.
Romer, from observation of the Moons of Jupiter, discovers the finite speed of light.

1660 - 1725 Alessandro Scarlatti, musician.

fl.1660 Thomas Ady +, A Candle in the Dark, and other Humanists Survey of various works of the 1660s against witchcraft and religion.

1660 - 1743 Georg Ernst Stahl + +, mistaken phlogiston + theory.

1665 - 1721 R. J. Camerarius + studied plant pollination 1694.

1666 - 1747 Jean-Fery Rebel, composer, 1737 Les Elements +.

1667 - 1729 Thomas Fairchild +, 1720 discovered plant hybridisation.

1667 - 1748 Johann Bernoulli + mathematician, brother of Jacob and father of Daniel.

1668 - 1733 Francois Couperin, musician.

1671 - 1751 T. G. Albinoni, musician.

1672 Cocker script

c.1674 - 1707 Jeremiah Clarke, musician.

1675

1678 - 1741 Antonio Vivaldi, musician, composer.

1681 - 1767 G. P. Telemann, musician, composer.

1683 - 1764 Jean-Philippe Rameau, musician, composer.

1685 - 1750 Johann Sebastian Bach, musician, composer.

1685 - 1757 Domenico Scarlatti, musician, composer.

1685 - 1759 Georg Frideric Handel, musician, composer.

1685 - 1731 Brook Taylor + +, 1715 Methodus Incrementorum, Taylor's series for f(x + h).

1687. New mathematical methods, including differential and integral calculus, are developed by Fermat, Newton, Leibniz and others. Isaac Newton applies the new mathematics to deduce Kepler's laws from the law of gravitational attraction.

1688 - 1744 Alexander Pope +, poet, Essay on Man +.

1689: Ashanti confederacy founded by Osei Tutu.

1693 - 1776 John Harrison + Clockmaker whose accurate chronometers solved the longitude problem.

1694 - 1778 Francois-Marie Arouet, aka Voltaire + + + writer, campaigner and philosopher.

1697 - 1764 William Hogarth, engraver

1698 - 1746 Colin Maclaurin +, Treatise of Fluxions 1742, Maclaurin's series.

1699: Australia named New Britain by English expedition (??)

1700

1700 - 1800: Civil War in Easter Island (??)

1700 - 1782 Daniel Bernoulli + mathematician, fluid dynamics.

1702 - 1713: War of the Spanish Succession.

1707: Union of England and Scotland.

1707 - 1778 Carl von Linné aka Carolus Linnaeus +, 1735 Systema Natura introduced the two-part name system of genus and species for any plant or animal.

1707 - 1783 Leonhard Euler + + + mathematician.

1707 -1788 Georges Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon + +, 1749, 1781 Natural History +.

1710 - 1778 Thomas Arne, composer, song "Rule Brittannia".

1710 - 1736 Giovanni Pergolesi, musician.

1710 - 1784 Wilhelm Friedrich Bach, musician.

1711 - 1779 William Boyce, musician.

18th century typefaces: 1712 Snell: The Art of Writing.

1712 - 1778 Jean-Jacques Rousseau + + + + + writer and philosopher.

1714 - 1787 C. W. Gluck, musician.

1714 - 1788 C. P. E. Bach, musician.

1717 - 1757 J. W. Stamitz, musician.

1719 Le Blond patents 3-colour engraving.

1720 - 1778 Giovanni Piranesi, architect.

1720 - 1790 Nicolas de Launay, engraver

1722 Caslon Old Face.

1725

1725 - 1809 Paul Sandby, typographer

1726 - 1797 James Hutton + + + + +, Theory of the Earth 1785, maintained there were cycles of geological activity, known for the saying 'No vestige of a beginning, no prospect of an end'.

1727 - 1815 Francesco Bartolozzi, etcher

1728 - 1777 Johann Heinrich Lambert + + + Mathematics: introduced hyperbolic functions in trigonometry, proved irrationality of pi +, geometry of curved surfaces, theory of map projections. + Physics: invented a practical hygrometer, expressed laws of illumination 1760 Photometria, Beer-Lambert law of light absorption, published a version of the nebular hypothesis of origin of the solar system. Psychology: coined the term 'phenomenology', considered how to distinguish subjective and objective experiences, developed syllogistic logic 1764 New Organon.

1728 - 1779 James Cook + + + +, explorer (statue on Mall near Admiralty Arch).

1728 - 1793 John Hunter +, surgeon.

1728 - 1799 Joseph Black + +, carbon dioxide.

1729 - 1799 Lazzaro Spallanzani +, microscopist 1765.

1731 - 1810 Henry Cavendish + + +, hydrogen.

1732 - 1809 Franz Josef Haydn, musician, composer, symphonies, string quartets.

1732 - 1811 Nevil Maskelyne + 5th Astronomer Royal.

1733 china clay filler in papermaking introduced, Bickham: Universal Penman (Copper plate).

1733 - 1804 Joseph Priestley + + +, oxygen.

1735 - 1782 Johann Christian Bach, musician, composer.

1736: Nadir Shah seizes throne of Persia from Safavids.

1736 - 1796: Chinese empire under Qianlong expands to include Tibet, Mongolia, Turkestan, Annam, Burma and Nepal.

1736 - 1813 Joseph-Louis Lagrange +, mathematician.

1737 - 1798 Luigi Galvani + + +, animal electricity.

1738 - 1822 William Herschel +, astronomer, 1781 discovery of a new planet in the solar system, which he called Georgium Sidum, later named Uranus.

1739 - 1785 Joseph Marie Degerando +, The Observation of Savage Peoples +, anthropology.

1740 - 1748: War of the Austrian Succession.

1740 - 1814 Donatien de Sade aka Marquis de Sade +.

1740 - 1795 William Smellie +, The Philosophy of Natural History + 1791.

1742 - 1786 Carl Wilhelm Scheele + + + +

1743 - 1794 Antoine Laurent Lavoisier + + + + +, correct theory of combustion.

1743 - 1805 Luigi Boccherini, musician, composer.

1743 - 1820 Joseph Banks +, botanist, explorer and scientific administrator.

1744 - 1829 Jean Baptiste Lamarck + + + + + +, 1809 Philosophie Zoologique +, a theory of evolution by acquired characteristics.

1745 - 1827 Alessandro Volta + + +, electric 'pile' battery.

1746 - 1794 William Jones. Orientalist and philologist who studied Sanscrit and showed its relationship to Latin and Greek. Worked as a jurist in Bengal. Wrote on 'Caissa' the muse of chess.

1746 - 1823 Jacques Charles + +, 1783 made the first manned hydrogen balloon flight with N-L. Robert, 1787 did experiments showing expansion of gas proportional to absolute temperature, Charles' Law.

1746 - 1828 Francisco de Goya +, painter The Third of May, The Sleep of Reason.

1748 Baskerville typeface.

1748 - 1819 John Playfair + 1802 Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory of the Earth.

1748 - 1832 Jeremy Bentham +, philosopher of utilitarianism, 1789 Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation +, 1824 Handbook of Political Fallacies.

1749 - 1827 Pierre-Simon Laplace + + + +, Mecanique Celeste.

1750

1750 - 1816 C. K. Sprengel + + + +, plant pollination by insects.

1750 - 1825 Antonio Salieri, musician.

1751 - 1819 Samuel Stanhope Smith + +, 1787 On Variety in the Human Species +, anthropology.

1752 - 1824 Janinet engraver

1752 - 1840 Johann Friedrich Blumenbach +, On the Natural Variety of Mankind +, anthropology.

1753 - 1828 Thomas Bewick illustrator

1756 - 1763: Seven Years War

1756 - 1791 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, musician composer.

1756 - 1827 Rowlandson caricaturist

1756 - 1827 Ernst Chladni +, scientist who studied meteorites, transmission of sound, and the patterns produced on vibrating plates.

1757: Battle of Plassey. British control much of India

1757 Baskerville, Virgil

1757 - 1827 William Blake, poet, etcher

1760 - 1842 Luigi Cherubini, musician.

1761 - 1832 James Hall +, geology of volcanic rocks.

1766 - 1834 Thomas Robert Malthus + + + + + + +, 1798 Essay on the Principle of Population + + + + +.

1766 - 1844 John Dalton + + + +, A New System of Chemical Philosophy 1808, atomic theory.

1768 - 1779: James Cook explores south Pacific.

1769 - 1821 Napoleon Bonaparte soldier and statesman.

1769 - 1832 Georges Cuvier + +, 1827-35 The Animal Kingdom +, comparative anatomy.

1769 - 1839 William Smith + + +, 1815 first Geological Map of England and Wales.

1769 - 1852 Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington + soldier and statesman.

1769 - 1859 Alexander von Humboldt + + + + + + + + explorer and naturalist.

1770 - 1827 Ludwig van Beethoven, musician, composer.

1770 - 1847 Alexandre Brongniart + geologist.

1772 - 1834 Samuel Taylor Coleridge + +, poet Rime of the Ancient Mariner, Kubla Khan, Christabel.

1772 - 1844 Etienne Geoffroy St Hilaire +, ideas on evolution.

1772 - 1853 Charles Caldwell +, physician, 1852 Original Unity of Human Race +.

1773 - 1829 Thomas Young +. 1803 carried out double-slit experiment on light showing interference supporting the wave theory. 1807 studied the ratio of stress to strain in various materials, now known as Young's modulus. 1814 partially deciphered the demotic inscription on the Rosetta Stone.

1773 - 1852 Aimé Bonpland + + + + explorer and naturalist (Humboldt expedition 1799).

1774 - 1836 William Henry +, chemist who 1803 studied effects of pressure on absorption of gases, Henry's Law, 1799 Elements of Experimental Chemistry, one of the founders of the Manchester Mechanics Institute that became UMIST.

1774 - 1857 Francis Beaufort +, hydrographer of the British Admiralty 1829-54, meteorologist, originated the Beaufort wind scale.

1774 - 1862 Jean-Baptiste Biot +, scientist who studied meteorites, polarized light and electro-magnetism. Developed the Biot-Savart law + + + + + for magnetic fields near conductors.

1775

1775 - 1851 J.M.W. Turner, painter

c.1775: Beginning of Industrial Revolution

1775 - 1783: American revolution, 1776: US declaration of independence

1776 - 1786: Fulani Emirates founded (??)

1776 - 1841 George Birkbeck + + +, Founder of mechanics institutes.

1778 - 1829 Humphry Davy + + + + + +, electro-chemistry.

1778 - 1837 Johann Nepomuk Hummel, musician composer.

1778 - 1850 Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac + 3+ + +, physical chemist who studied reaction of gases under changing temperature and pressure.

1778 - 1856 John Collins Warren +, 1822 Nervous Systems in Man and Animals.

1778 - 1868 Henry Brougham + educational reformer.

1779 - 1848 Jons Jacob Berzelius + + + + +, chemical notation.

1781 - 1840 Simeon Poisson + + mathematician whose studies covered a wide range, particularly in statistics; Poisson distribution +.

1781 - 1868 David Brewster +, Experimental physicist who studied the properties of light refraction and polarisation in crystals. 1815 invented the kaleidoscope. 1831 One of the founders of the British Association for Advanement of Science. 1849 invented an improved stereoscope using prisms.

1780 first steel pen made (superseding the quill pen).

1782 - 1842 Cotman, watercolourist

1782 - 1840 Nicolo Paganini, violin virtuoso, composer.

1784 - 1856 William Buckland + + + + + geologist and fossil hunter.

1785 - 1836 Claude-Louis Navier + mathematician who applied the theory of elasticity to the analysis of structures, and developed equations of fluid mechanics: 1822 Navier-Stokes equations (see George Stokes 1819).

1785 - 1838 Pierre Louis Dulong +, physical chemist, discovered explosive nature of nitrogen trichloride, work on specific heats led to the Dulong-Petit law + +.

1785 - 1873 Adam Sedgwick + + + geologist.

1786 - 1826 Carl Maria von Weber, composer, Die Freischutz.

1786 - 1853 Francois Arago + Astronomer, surveyor and optical researcher.

1787 - 1826 Joseph von Fraunhofer +, spectrum lines.

1788 Bodoni.

1788: New South Wales established as penal colony

1788 - 1827 Augustin-Jean Fresnel +, Engineer and physicist known for his work on optics. Developed the multipart lenses used in lighthouses. 1821 showed that light was a purely transverse vibration.

1788 - 1860 Arthur Schopenhauer + + +, philosopher, The Forfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason 1813, The World as Will and Representation 1819.

1789: French Revolution begins

1790 - 1830 Jean-Francois Champollion + 1822 deciphered the Egyptian hieroglyphs using the Rosetta Stone, following on from the work by Thomas Young.

1790 - 1852 Gideon Mantell + + + +, fossil hunter.

1790 - 1874 John Bachman +, 1850 Unity of the Human Race +.

1791 - 1820 Alexis Therese Petit +, Dulong-Petit law + + of specific heats.

1791 - 1841 Felix Savart + scientist who worked on acoustics and electromagnetism, helped develop the Biot-Savart law to calculate magnetic fields near electrical conductors.

1791 - 1867 Michael Faraday + + + +, 1830-55 Experimental Researches in Electricity + +, 1823-45 Liquefaction of Gases +.

1791 - 1871 Charles Babbage +, inventor of a difference engine, precursor of programmable computers.

1792 - 1878 George Cruikshank, cartoonist

1792 - 1868 Gioachino Rossini, opera composer, The Barber of Seville, The Thieving Magpie, William Tell.

1792 - 1871 Roderick Murchison +, geologist.

1792 - 1871 John F. W. Herschel + + + + +, 1831 Preliminary Discourse on the Study of Natural Philosophy, 1849 Outlines of Astronomy, coined the term "photography".

1793 - 1841 George Green + mathematician, published 1828 Essay on the Application of Mathematical Analysis to the Theories of Electricity and Magnetism, which developed the general mathematical theory of the potential function, and proved Green's Theorem.

1794 - 1866 William Whewell + + +, 1833 coined the term "scientist", 1837 History of the Inductive Sciences, 1840 Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences +, 1846 Indication of the Creator +.

1796 Fry's Ornamented, typeface

1797 - 1848 Gaetano Donizetti, musician.

1797 - 1869 Jean Poiseuille + + Hagen-Poiseuille law + + of fluid flow through pipes, applicable to medical purposes such as blood flow.

1797 - 1875 Charles Lyell + + + + +, 1830-1833 Principles of Geology (3 vols), 1873 Antiquity of Man +.

1797 - 1884 Gotthilf Hagen + engineer who studied flow through pipes, arriving at the same law as Poiseuille.

1797 - 1886 A.J.C.B. de Saint-Venant +, derived the Navier-Stokes equations from more general assumptions, and invented a form of vector algebra at same time as Grassmann.

1798 - 1857 August Comte + + + + +, coined the term "sociology".

1799 - 1847 Mary Anning + + + + + + +, fossil hunter.

1800

1800 - 1882 Friedrich Wohler + +, synthesis of urea, an "organic" compound.

1801 - 1835 Vincenzo Bellini, musician.

1801 - 1892 George Airy +, astronomer royal 1835-81.

1802 - 1871 Robert Chambers + + + +, 1844 Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation.

1802 - 1875 Charles Wheatstone + Inventor of the concertina and the stereoscope and the playfair cipher. Worked on telegraphy. Developed the Wheatstone Bridge for measurement of electrical resistance.

1803: Louisiana purchase.

1803 - 1805 Marathas and British fight in India.

1803 - 1869 Hector Berlioz, composer, Symphonie Fantastique.

1803 - 1873 Justus Freiherr von Liebig + +, 1842 Animal Chemistry, 1843 Organic Chemistry, 1855 Agricultural Chemistry.

1804 - 1849 Johann Strauss (senior), musician.

1804 - 1857 Mikhail Glinka, composer.

1804 - 1873 Josiah C. Nott +, 1850 Caucasian and Negro Races +.

1804 - 1892 Richard Owen + + + +, named 'Dinosaurs', founded Natural History Museum, 1860 Review of 'Origin of Species' +.

1805 - 1881 Samuel Palmer, painter

1805 - 1859 Alexis de Tocqueville + + +, 1835-40 Democracy in America +.

1805 - 1865 Robert Fitzroy +, navigator, hydrographer, meteorologist.

1805 - 1869 Thomas Graham +, + chemist who worked on colloid chemistry, dialysis and diffusion, formulated Graham's law + of diffusion and effusion of gases.

1806 - 1873 John Stuart Mill + + + +, 1843 System of Logic, 1859 On Liberty +, 1861 Utilitarianism +, 1869 The Subjection of Women.

1807 - 1873 Louis Agassiz + + + + + +, 1857-62 Natural History of USA +, 1869 Darwinism +.

1808 - 1828: Independence movements in South America

1809 - 1847 Felix Mendelssohn, musician, composer, Hebrides Overture.

1809 - 1882 Charles Darwin +, Voyage of the Beagle 1845, Origin of Species 1859.

19th century typefaces: 1810 Fat Face.

1810 - 1849 Frederick Chopin, piano virtuoso, composer.

1810 - 1856 Robert Schumann, composer.

1810 - 1878 Henri Victor Regnault + +, synthesised chlorinated hydrocarbons, studied properties of steam, developing the science of thermodynamics, and did work on photography.

1810 - 1884 Mary Gove Nicholls + +, 1874 Water Cure +.

1811 - 1886 Franz Liszt, piano virtuoso, composer.

1811 - 1899 Robert Bunsen + +, spectrum analysis.

1813 - 1888 Nathaniel Currier, printer

1813 - 1878 Claude Bernard + + +, scientific method in medicine, 1865 Experimental Medicine +.

1813 - 1883 Richard Wagner, opera composer.

1813 - 1889 J. L. Cabell + +, 1858 Common Origin of Mankind +.

1813 - 1901 Giuseppe Verdi, opera composer.

1815: Battle of Waterloo

1815 - 1864 George Boole +, mathematical logic.

1817 - 1911 Joseph Dalton Hooker + botanist.

1818: Marathas and British fight again in India

1818 - 1865 Ignaz Semmelweis + + + + + + physician, improved hospital hygiene, but encountered opposition.

1818 - 1893 Charles Gounod, musician.

1819 - 1880 Jacques Offenbach, musician.

1819 - 1892 Walt Whitman +, poet, Leaves of Grass 1865.

1819 - 1896 Clara Schumann, piano virtuoso.

1819 - 1903 George Stokes +, + + mathematical physicist who studied fluid mechanics (Navier-Stokes equations +), friction, and other questions. Lucasian professor at Cambridge from 1849, and President of the Royal Society 1885-90.

1820-1840 development of photography, 1820 "Egyptian", typeface, slab serifs.

1820 - 1893 John Tyndall + + + + +, physics of atmosphere.

1821 - 1895 Johann Joseph Loschmidt + + +, 1865 On the Size of the Air Molecules +.

1822 - 1890 César Franck, musician.

1822 - 1895 Louis Pasteur +.

1822 - 1911 Francis Galton +, biometrics, eugenics (1883).

1823 - 1913 Alfred Russel Wallace + + + + + + + + +, collector +, co-discoverer of "natural selection" 1858 On the Tendency of Varieties to Depart Indefinitely from the Original Type, Correspondence with Darwin +, 1869 The Malay Archipelago, 1874 On Miracles and Modern Spiritualism +, 1900 The Wonderful Century +.

1824 - 1895 James Merritt Ives, publisher

1824 - 1826: First Anglo-Burmese war

1824 - 1880 Paul Broca + + +, 1861 The Faculty of Language +, 1864 Hybridity in Genus Homo +.

1824 - 1884 Bedrich Smetana, composer.

1824 - 1887 Gustav Kirchhoff + +, electric circuits, spectrum analysis.

1824 - 1896 Anton Bruckner, composer.

1825

1825 - 1863 August Beer + physicist who wrote on optics. Beer-Lambert law of absorption of light.

1825 - 1892 Henry Walter Bates +, naturalist and explorer, 1863 A Naturalist on the River Amazon.

1825 - 1895 T. H. Huxley + + + + + + + biologist, educator and organiser of science.

1825 - 1899 Johann Strauss, the younger, composer The 'Blue Danube' Waltz.

1826 - 1864 Stephen Foster, song composer.

1827 - 1881 John Ferguson McLennan +, ethnologist, 1865 Primitive Marriage +.

1827 - 1912 Joseph Lister +, antiseptic surgery.

1829: W. Australia becomes part of British empire

1829 - 1869 Louis Gottschalk, musician.

1829 - 1896 Friedrich August Kekule + +, 1865 elucidated the structure of benzene (C6H6) as a ring of carbon atoms.

1830: Algeria invaded by France

1830 - 1895 Julius Lothar Meyer + + + +, atomic volume.

1831 - 1879 James Clerk Maxwell + +, 1873 Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism + +, +, 1894 Matter and Motion +.

1831 - 1914 Eduard Suess + + first ideas of prehistoric super-continent.

1832 - 1883 Gustave Dore, artist

1832 - 1898 Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, aka Lewis Carroll +, Alice's Adventures 1865, 1872, Hunting of the Snark.
John Tenniel ???

1833 - 1887 Alexander Borodin, composer and chemist.

1833 - 1897 Johannes Brahms, composer.

1834 - 1896 William Morris, writer, designer

1834 - 1917 Edgar Degas +, painter

1834 - 1907 Dmitri Mendeleev + + + + + , 1869 periodic table + + +.

1835 - 1918 César Cui, composer.

1835 - 1921 Camille Saint Saens, composer.

1837 - 1910 Mily Alexeyevich Balakirev, composer.

1837 - 1900 Wilhelm Kuhne +, physiology of muscle and nerve, chemistry of digestion, 1877 defines "enzyme", trypsin +.

1838: Zulus and Boers start fighting

1838 - 1842: First Anglo-Afghan war

1838 - 1875 Georges Bizet, opera composer, Carmen.

1838 - 1907 William Henry Perkin + + +, 1856 synthesised mauveine +, the first aniline purple dye, from coal-tar extracts. He set up a business, which was the beginning of the pharmaceutical industry.

1839 - 1842: First Opium war

1839 - 1881 Modest Mussorgsky, composer.

1839 - 1901 Paul Cezanne + + post-impresssionist painter,

1840 Commercial penscript

1840 Treaty of Waitangi + between Britain and Maori chiefs, making New Zealand part of the British Empire.

1840 - 1893 Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, composer.

1840 - 1893 John Addington Symonds +, poet, historian, 1873 Studies of the Greek Poets.

1840 - 1916 Odilon Redon + + + +, symbolist artist and printmaker.

1841 - 1904 Antonin Dvorak, composer, Symphony No. 9: 'From the New World'.

1841 - 1919 Auguste Renoir + painter.

1842 - 1910 William James + +, 1890 Principles of Psychology, 1902 Varieties of Religious Experience.

1842 - 1921 Peter Kropotkin + + + + + +, Anarchist, 1902 Mutual Aid: A Factor in Evolution.

1843 - 1847: First Anglo-Maori war

1843 - 1907 Edvard Grieg, composer Piano Comcerto. Pier Gint Suite.

1844 - 1900 Friedrich Nietsche (active 1872 - 89) + +. 1885 Thus Spake Zarathustra, 1886 Beyond Good and Evil, 1901 The Will to Power.

1844 - 1906 Ludwig Boltzmann +, statistical mechanics, entropy.

1844 - 1908 N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov, composer Sheherazade.

1844 - 1929 Edward Carpenter +, poet, socialist, homosexual activist The Intermediate Sex 1908.

1844 - 1937 Charles Widor, organist, composer Tocata.

1845 - 1924 Gabriel-Urbain Fauré, composer.

1846 - 1904 Emile Gallé + + + + + art-nouveau glass-worker, and humanist.

1848: Revolutions in Europe

1848 - 1903 Paul Gauguin + +, post-impressionist painter.

1850

1850 - 1894 Robert Louis Stevenson +, author, 1883 Treasure Island, 1886 Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde.

1850 - 1927 Charles Doolittle Walcott + + + +, 1909 discovered the Burgess Shale Cambrian fossils.

1851 - 1901 George Fitzgerald +, indicated, 1889, how "Fitzgerald contraction" would account for the result of the Michelson - Morley experiment.

1852 - 1853: Second Anglo-Burmese war

1852 - 1911 Jacobus Van't Hoff + +, 1874 La chimie dans l'espace on stereoisomerism, optical activity, tetrahedral carbon atom. Later studied dynamics of chemical reactions, and osmosis, 1901 first winner of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry.

1852 - 1919 Emil Fischer + + +, chemist, studied purines, sugars, peptides, proteins, amino acids, enzyme chemistry.

1853 - 1890 Vincent van Gogh + +, post-impressionist painter.

1853 - 1925 James Mackenzie +, physician, 1919 The Future of Medicine +.

1853 - 1928 Hendrik Lorentz + +, 1904 Lorentz transformation, special relativity.

1854 - 1928 Leos Janacek. musician, composer.

1854 - 1932 Patrick Geddes + + +, 1889 Evolution of Sex, 1914 Sex +.

1854 - 1932 John Philip Sousa, composer, marches.

1855 vegetable parchment made.

1856 - 1857: Persia at war with Britain after taking Herat (Afghanistan)

1856 - 1860: Second Opium war

1856 - 1939 Sigmund Freud + neurologist, founder of psychoanalysis.

1857 - 1924 Joseph Conrad Korzeniowski +, author, 1899 Heart of Darkness.

1857 - 1934 Edward Elgar, composer.

1857 - 1936 Andrija Mohorovicic + seismologist, identified Earth has an outer crust over a denser, hotter mantle 2900km thick.

1858 - 1924 Giacomo Puccini, musician.

1858 - 1936 R. D. Oldham + + + analysed seismograph waves and concluded that Earth had a dense core 7000km in diameter.

1858 - 1944 Ethel Smyth, musician.

1858 - 1947 Max Planck + +, quantum theory of black body radiation, 1918 awarded Nobel prize in Physics.

1859 - 1891 Georges Seurat +, painter.

1859 - 1913 John Milne + +, studied earthquakes and developed a seismograph for recording shock waves.

1859 - 1939 Henry Havelock Ellis + + +, psychologist, 1915 Sexual Inversion +.

1860 - 1872: Second Anglo-Maori war

1860 - 1903 Hugo Wolf, musician.

1860 - 1909 Isaac Albéniz, composer.

1860 - 1911 Gustav Mahler, composer.

1860 - 1917 Eduard Buchner +, 1897 On alcoholic fermentation without yeast cells +, 1903 Zymosis.

1860 - 1939 Alphonse Mucha, artist

1860 - 1941 Ignacy Paderewski, pianist, composer, statesman.

1860 - 1956 Gustave Charpentier, composer.

1861 - 1865: American civil war

1861 - 1926 William Bateson +, geneticist.

1862 tracing paper made.

1862 - 1951 Vilhelm Bjerknes + + +, weather forecasting.

1862 - 1918 Claude Debussy, composer.

1862 - 1934 Frederick Delius, composer.

1864 - 1901 Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec + + + art-nouveau poster artist, post-impressionist painter.

1864 - 1949 Richard Strauss, composer.

1864 - 1941 W. Nernst, electrode potential(?).

1865 - 1931 Carl Nielsen, composer.

1865 - 1935 Paul Dukas, composer.

1865 - 1936 Alexander Glazunov, composer.

1865 - 1940 Pierre Weiss(?), magnetic susceptibility.

1865 - 1957 Jean Sibelius, composer.

1866 - 1924 Ferruccio Busoni, composer.

1866 - 1925 Erik Satie, composer.

1866 - 1945 Thomas Hunt Morgan + + + +, genes and chromosomes, 1914 Heredity and Sex +.

1867: Dominion of Canada formed

1867 - 1934 Marie Sklodowska-Curie aka Madame Curie + worked with Pierre Curie, studied radioactivity of the Uranium ore pitchblende, isolated new elements Polonium and Radium. Awarded Nobel Prizes for Physics 1903 and Chemistry 1911.

1867 - 1942 Hector Guimard + + + art-nouveau architect, Paris Metro.

1867 - 1944 Charles Dana Gibson illustrator

1867 - 1956 Frank Brangwyn Muralist/Etcher

1868 - 1934 Fritz Haber + + + + +, commercial synthesis of ammonia.

1868 - 1917 Scott Joplin, composer.

1868 - 1928 Charles Rennie Mackintosh + + + + art-nouveau interior designer and architect.

1869 - 1943 Ales Hrdlicka + + +, 1925 The Old Americans +, anthropology.

1870 - 1966 Maxfield Parrish painter/illustrator.

1870 - 1927 Bertram Boltwood +, 1911 first used radioactivity to estimate date of rocks.

1871 - 1937 Ernest Rutherford + + + + + +, 1911 discovered atoms consisted of a very small heavy nucleus with surrounding cloud of electrons, 1913 Radioactive Substances and their Radiations +.

1872 - 1970 Bertrand Russell +, 1901 Russell's Paradox, 1903 Principles of Mathematics, 1946 History of Western Philosophy.

1872 - 1898 Aubrey Beardsley + + art-nouveau illustrator.

1872 - 1915 Alexander Skryabin, composer.

1872 - 1949 William Nicholson artist.

1872 - 1958 Ralph Vaughan Wiliams, composer.

1873 Electricity and Magnetism by Maxwell, publishes the four partial differential equations of electromagnetism.

1873 - 1943 Sergey Rachmaninov, composer.

1874 - 1934 Gustav Holst, composer.

1874 - 1941 Elsie Clews Parsons + + + +, 1913 The Old-Fashioned Woman +.

1874 - 1949 Ludwig Hohlwein poster artist.

1874 - 1951 Arnold Schoenberg, composer.

1874 - 1954 Charles Ives, composer.


1875

1875 - 1937 Maurice Ravel, composer.

1876 - 1946 Manuel de Falla, composer.

1876 - 1972 Havergal Brian, composer.

1877 - 1960 James Flagg illustrator.

1878 - 1880: Second Anglo-Afghan war

1879 - 1955 Albert Einstein + + + +, Annus Mirabilis Papers 1905 + + +, 1916 Relativity: The Special and General Theory + +.

1879 - 1958 Milutin Milankovitch + + + + +, climate cycles.

1879 - 1958 Ernest Jones + neurologist, populariser of psychoanalysis, biographer of Sigmund Freud.

1880 - 1881: First Anglo-Boer War.

1880 halftone printing invented.

1880 - 1930 Alfred Wegener + + + + + formulated theories of continental drift.

1880 - 1936 Oswald Spengler + + + +, historian and philosopher, 1918 and 1922 Der Untergang des Abendlandes (The Decline of the West), 1923 vol.2 Perspectives of World History +.

1880 - 1956 H. L. Mencken + + + journalist, essayist, critic, controversialist, 1919 The American Language +.

1881 - 1945 Bela Bartok, composer.

1881 - 1957 Irving Langmuir +.

1881 - 1973 Pablo Picasso +, aka Pablo Ruiz Blasco, cubist artist, Guernica.

1882: Triple Alliance + formed between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy (to 1914).

1882 - 1940 Eric Gill sculptor, engraver, typographer.

1882 - 1945 Robert H. Goddard + +, rocket scientist.

1882 - 1961 Percy Grainger, composer.

1882 - 1967 Zoltan Kodaly, composer.

1882 - 1971 Igor Stravinsky, composer.

1883 - 1918 Hans Erdt.

1883 - 1946 John Maynard Keynes +, 1936 General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money.

1883 - 1945 Anton von Webern, composer.

1884 - 1885: Congress of Berlin divides up Africa

typefaces: 1884 Ronaldson

1884 - 1958 Motonori Matuyama + + +, discovered that the Earth's magnetic polarity reverses.

1885: Third Anglo-Burmese war

1885 - 1935 Alban Berg, composer.

1885 - 1962 Niels Bohr + + + + + +, quantised theory of atom +, 1913 On the Constitution of Atoms and Molecules +, 1921 Atomic Structure +.

1886 - 1941 James Pryde artist.

1887 Michelson-Morley experiment fails to detect change in velocity of light.

1888 Hertz shows light is a type of electromagnetic wave.

1887 - 1959 Heitor Villa-Lobos, composer.

1887 - 1961 Erwin Schrodinger +, wave equations of quantum theory.

1888 - 1925 +, theory of an expanding universe 1922.

1889 - 1953 Edwin Hubble + + + + +, 1924 distance of Andromeda galaxy, 1929 redshift observations support expanding universe, 1936 The Realm of the Nebulae.

1889 - 1969 Ben Shahn lithographer/painter.

1890 development of photoprocess, Kelmscott Press founded by William Morris.

1891 - 1953 Sergei Prokofiev, composer.

1892 - 1987 Louis de Broglie +, quantum wave-particle duality.

1894 - 1978 Norman Rockwell illustrator.

1894 Century Old Style

1895 - 1963 Paul Hindemith, composer.

1895 - 1982 Carl Orff, composer.

1896 Cheltenham typeface

1896 - 1980 Jean Piaget +, developmental psychologist. 1926 The Child's Conception of the World, 1936 The Origin of Intelligence in Children, 1958 The Early Growth of Logic in the Child.

1897 - 1975 Jacob Bjerknes +, weather forecasting.

1898 - 1937 George Gershwin, composer.

1898 Standard typeface

1,899 - 1902: Second Anglo-Boer War

1899 - 1963 Francis Poulenc, composer.


1900

1900 - 1950 Kurt Weil, composer.

1900 - 1990 Aaron Copland, composer.

1901: Commonwealth of Australia formed

1901 - 1954 Enrico Fermi +, physicist, 1938 Nobel Prize, developed first nuclear reactor, worked on the atomic bomb project.

1901 - 1968 A. M. Cassandra poster artist,

1901 - 1994 Linus Pauling +, awarded Nobel Prizes for Chemistry 1954, and Peace 1963.

1901 - Joaquin Rodrigo composer.

1901. First Nobel Prizes awarded.

1901 - 1976 Werner Heisenberg +, matrix equations of quantum theory, uncertainty principle.

1902 - 1994 Karl Popper +, 1934 Die Logik der Forschung (The Logic of Scientific Discovery) (translated 1959).

1902 - 1984 Paul Dirac + +, 1927 prediction of antimatter positron.

1902 - 1983 William Walton, composer.

1903 Franklin Gothic

1903 - 1978 Aram Khachaturian, composer.

1903 - 1989 Konrad Lorenz +, 1935 imprinting in young birds, ethology.

1903 - 1950 Eric Blair, aka George Orwell + + + +, writer, 1945 Animal Farm + 1945, 1946 Politics and the English Language +, 1948 1984 +, includes principles of "Newspeak", + +.

1904 - 1968 George Gamow +, astrophysics, 1948 The Origin of Chemical Elements, with Alpher and Bethe, predicted the level of microwave background radiation.

1904 - 1991 Graham Greene +, novelist, 1938 Brighton Rock, 1949 The Third Man.

1904 - 1975 Luigi Dallapiccola, composer.

1905 - 1998 Michael Tippett, composer.

1905 - 1991 Carl D. Anderson + +, 1932 discovery of positron.

1906 - 1975 Dmitri Shosdtakovich, composer.

1906 - 1983 Elisabeth Lutyens, composer.

1907: Dominion of New Zealand founded

1907 - 1964 Rachel Carson + + + + +, 1962 Silent Spring.

1907 Clearface

1908: Tunguska explosion in Siberia, most recent disaster caused by body from space.

1908 News Gothic

1908 - 1992 Olivier Messaien, composer.

1908 - Elliott Carter, composer.

1909 - 1997 Isaiah Berlin +, philosopher, 1958 Two Concepts of Liberty.

1910: South Africa beomes independent dominion

1910 - 1920: Mexican revolution

1910 - 1981 Samuel Barber, composer.

1910 aluminium foil made.

1911 typeface Kennerley

1911 - 1993 William Golding + + + +, 1954 Lord of the Flies +, 1955 The Inheritors.

1912 - 1913: Balkan wars

1912: China: Republic

1912 cellophane invented.

1912 - 1992 John Cage, composer.

1912 - 1954 Alan Turing + + + + + + + + + +, 1950 Computing Machinery and Intelligence.

1913 - 1976 Benjamin Britten, composer.

1913 - 1994 Witold Luteslawski, composer.

1914: Panama canal opened

1914 - 1918 World War I, fought between the Allies and the Central Powers, ended the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire. This transformation was catalysed by wars of unparalleled scope and devastation. It also weakened France and Britain. In its aftermath, the Russian Revolution of 1917 created the first communist state, while the 1920s and 1930s saw militaristic fascist dictatorships gain control in Italy, Germany, Spain and elsewhere.

1915 - 1984 Elso Barghoorn + +, precambrian fossils.

1915 - 2001 Fred Hoyle +, astrophysics, 1946 nucleosynthesis, 1950 The Nature of the Universe, proposed a steady state cosmology in opposition to what he called the "big bang" theory.

1916 - 2004 Francis Crick + + + +, Crick papers +.

1916 - 2004 Maurice Wilkins +, Discovery of Structure of DNA +, 1966 Of Molecules and Men.

1916 - Milton Babbitt, musician

1917: US declares war on Germany. Russian revolution.

1918: Spanish flu outbreak, in two years killed as many as the "black death" in 200.

1918 Johnston's Railway type

1918 - 1990 Leonard Bernstein.

1919 - James Lovelock + + + +, Gaia hypothesis.

1919 - 1982 Henri Tajfel + , 1963 group rivalry experiments.

1920: German colonies in Pacific acquired by Australia and Japan

1920 - 2004 John Maynard Smith +, evolutionist.

1920 - 1958 Rosalind Franklin +, X-ray crystallographer.

1921 - 2002 John Rawls +, 1971 A Theory of Justice + + +, 1996 Political Liberalism +.

1921 Cooper Black

1922: Egypt becomes independent

1922 - Iannis Xenakis

1,923: Ottoman empire ends. Turkish republic founded.

1923 - Gyorgy Ligeti

1923 - Freeman Dyson +, 1979 Time without End.

1924 - 1990 Luigi Nano, musician


1925

1925 - Luciano Berio, musician

1925 - Pierre Boulez, musician

1,926: British Empire renamed "British Commonwealth of Nations".

1926 - Hans Werner Henze, musician

1926 Ionic Linotype

1927 Cable typeface

1928 Eric Gill introduces Gill Sans typeface.

1928 - Karlheinz Stockhausen, musician

1928 - James Watson + + + + + +, The Double Helix +, The Molecular Biology of the Gene, Human Genome Project +.

1929: Astronomers using ever more powerful telescopes expand the universe by interpreting nebulae as galaxies of stars. Edwin Hubble deduces the expansion of the universe which leads to the big bang theory.

1929 - Edward O. Wilson + +, 1975 Sociobiology.

1929 Thannhaeuser typeface, Corvinus (condensed Bodoni)

1930: First Commonwealth Games held in Canada.

1930 Tempo typeface

1930 - 1996 Toru Takemitsu, musician

1931 Beton, Times New Roman

1932: Saudi Arabia united

1932 Metropolis, typeface

1933 - Krzysztof Penderecki, musician

1934 - 1935: Long March in China

1934 Edward Johnston, Rockwell

1934 - 1998 Alfred Schnittke, musician

1934 - Peter Maxwell-Davies, musician

1934 - Harrison Birtwistle, musician

1,935: Ethiopia invaded by Italy

1935 Futura

1935 - Arvo Part, musician

1935 - Terry Riley, musician

1936 - Steve Reich, musician

1936 - 2000 William D. Hamilton +, altruism in evolution.

1937 - Philip Glass, musician

1939-1945 World War II. Ongoing national rivalries, exacerbated by the economic turmoil of the Great Depression, helped precipitate World War II. The militaristic dictatorships of Europe and Japan pursued a course of imperialist expansionism. Their defeat opened the way for the advance of communism into Central Europe, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Romania, Albania, China, North Vietnam and North Korea. Nuclear weapons, used against Japan in 1945, ended the war.

1940 - 1993 Frank Zappa, musician

1941: USA enters world war, after Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour, Hawaii

1941 - Richard Dawkins + + +, selfish gene.

1942 - Dan Mckenzie + + + + developed geological theory of plate tectonics.

1942 - Stephen Hawking + +, A Brief History of Time.

1942: Battle of El Alamein

1943 - Gavin Bryars, composer

1944 - John Tavener, composer

1944 - Michael Nyman, composer

1945 - Anton Zeilinger + +, H. C. von Baeyer, In the Begining was the Bit: Zeilinger's Quantum interpretation.

1945. Founding of the United Nations in the hope of preventing future conflicts.

1945 - 1985. The Cold War, a stand-off between the United States and the Soviet Union, and their respective allies. With the development of nuclear weapons and the arms race, all of humanity were put at risk of nuclear war. In the early postwar decades, the African and Asian colonies of the Belgian, British, Dutch and French won their formal independence. Western and Central European nations gradually formed a political and economic community, the European Union, which subsequently expanded eastward to include former Soviet satellites.

1946 - 1949: Chinese Civil War

1947 - Gregory Chaitin + +, Godel's Theorem and Information 1982.

1947 - John Adams, composer

1947; India and Pakistan gain independence from Britain.
1947 - 1948: Palestine partitioned. Jewish state of Israel established.
1948 - 1949: First Arab-Israeli war

1948? - Robert Axelrod + +, Complexity of Cooperation.

1949: NATO formed. Germany divided into East and West (to 1990).
Policy of apartheid in South Africa (to 1991).
The British Commonwealth becomes just "The Commonwealth".


1950

1950 - 1953: Korean war

1,951: ANZUS alliance signed

1952: Military coup in Egypt

1953 - David Deutsch + +, quantum computers.

1954: French withdraw from Indochina

1954 acrylic paints invented, Trump Medieval typeface.

1956: Suez crisis

1956? - Steven Benner + +, synthetic biology, genomics.

1957: EEC established.
Independence movements in Africa (to 1975).

1957 Univers, Helvetica, Folio, Mercator

1958 Optima

1959: Cuban revolution.
Hawaii becomes 50th state of USA.

1959 - Stephen Wolfram + + +, A New Kind of Science, Reviews by S. Weinberg and D. Naiditch.

1960: Sharpeville massacre in South Africa

1963 - Garry Kasparov, aka Garri Weinstein +, 1984 world chess champion, 1986/7 games against IBM Deep Blue computer.

1964 - 1975: Vietnam war. USA involved until 1973.

1966 - 1976: Cultural Revolution in China

1,967: Six Day War

1969: IRA Violence in Northern Ireland

1971 Souvenir typeface: Typefaces: ? Clarendon ? Perpetua ? Old English, Fraktur, Black letter, Gothic ? Carousel (Fat Face) ? Grotesque ? Bell ? Venetian Centaur Typeface designers: William Morris, Walter Gropius, Mies van der Rohe, Stanley Morison Eric Gill, Monotype Corporation

1972: Yom Kippur war

1972. The last exploration of the Moon: Apollo 17.

1973 - 1974: Oil prices increased by OPEC


1975

1978 - 1989: Vietnam invades Cambodia

1979 - 1989: USSR invades Afghanistan

1980: Black majority rule in Zimbabwe

1980 - 1988: Iran-Iraq war

1982: Falklands war

1985: South Pacific dclared a nuclear-free zone. Greenpeace ship destroyed by French

1989 - 2000: Afghan Civil war

1991: USSR breaks up.
Civil war in Yugoslavia.
Gulf war.

1992: Yugoslavia breaks up. Czechs and Slovaks separate.

1993: Israel-PLO peace accord

1994: Palestinian autonomous areas established.
World Trade Organisation formed.
Ethnic massacres in Rwanda and Burundi.
ANC wins multiracial elections in South Africa.

1995: South Pacific Forum condemns France for nuclear tests

1997: Lease on New Territories ends. Hong Kong handed over to China. Economic crisis in far east.

1999: China resumes sovereignty over Macao.
NATO attacks Serbia over Kosovo.


2000

2000: Completion of the human genome project. World wide web electronic communication advances.

2001: Terrorist attacks on USA. Afghan war

2003: Iraq war

2004: Ethnic massacres in Darfur, Sudan. Tsunami in Indian ocean


2025


2050


2075


2100